Cognitive Functions Explained

Understanding the Power of The Brain


Have you ever wondered how the brain works, enabling you to think, learn, and solve problems? Understanding cognitive functions is the key to unraveling the mysteries of the human mind. In this page, we’ll dive deep into the world of cognitive functions, exploring what they are, how they work, and why they matter.

What Are Cognitive Functions?

Cognitive functions are the mental processes that allow us to acquire, process, store, and use information. These functions encompass a wide range of mental activities, and they play a fundamental role in shaping our thoughts, behaviors, and interactions with the world around us.

Types of Cognitive Functions

Let’s break down some of the key cognitive functions:


Memory is the ability to store, retain, and recall information. It is crucial for learning, problem-solving, and everyday tasks. Memory can be divided into different types, including long-term memory, short-term memory, and sensory memory.


Attention is the ability to focus on specific stimuli or tasks while ignoring distractions. It plays a crucial role in concentration, productivity, and multitasking.


Language skills enable us to comprehend written and spoken words, as well as to speak, read, and write. Effective communication relies on various language-related cognitive functions, such as auditory processing, verbal memory which allows us to access our vocabulary, and speech production.

Executive Functions

Executive functions are higher-level cognitive processes that help us plan, organize, initiate tasks, and manage time effectively. They are essential for goal-setting and achieving complex objectives. These functions involve critical thinking, reasoning, and the ability to evaluate options and make choices.

Visual-Spatial Abilities

This refers to the spatial awareness of your environment. This aspect of cognition enables us to orient ourselves in an environment, as well as mentally manipulate objects. Visual-spatial skills are necessary for many everyday tasks such as driving, or walking through a crowd without bumping into others.

How Do Cognitive Functions Work?

Cognitive functions rely on complex neural networks in the brain. Neurons communicate through electrical impulses and chemical signals, forming connections that underlie cognitive processes. When you think, learn, or remember, these neural circuits are hard at work, experiencing a symphony of brain activity.

Why Do Cognitive Functions Matter?

It’s easy to take our cognitive functions for granted. However, they are what make up every single experience in our lives, and if they become impaired it can greatly affect everyday life. Whether you have experienced a cognitive impairment or not, having a grasp of how cognition works can empower you to work on your cognitive skills, care for your mental health, and maintain a healthy brain.


To truly understand cognition, it’s crucial to have an understanding of neuroplasticity. This refers to the brain’s ability to create new neural connections and override old connections. Essentially, our brains are more easily able to change than we may think. Old habits as well as some cognitive impairments may be possible to overcome through exercising new neural connections. For example, if someone has had a stroke and is experiencing aphasia, they may be able to lessen the effects of aphasia through cognitive exercises with a clinician. This is dependent on each unique case, but is often true. Additionally, we may think of ourselves as being incapable of certain things, for example picking up a positive habit like exercising more frequently. However, through neuroplasticity, we can override old habits and take on new ones. It requires re-training the brain, which is easier said than done but is very possible.

One of the most common causes of cognitive impairment is aging. As we get older, our brain functions may gradually deteriorate. Some level of this is normal, however, it is also relatively common for older adults to develop neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia which cause larger cognitive issues, particularly impairments to memory. Although these conditions are not curable, understanding cognitive function is still very helpful in these situations. Exercising cognition regularly may slow down the effects of aging on cognitive function.

Quick summary

  • Cognitive function refers to the brain’s ability to perceive, store, retrieve, and manipulate information.
  • There are many cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial abilities, executive function, and more.
  • Cognitive health is important to understand because cognition affects every aspect of our lives. 
  • Neuroplasticity is what allows the brain to heal and change. Understanding cognition and neuroplasticity can empower us to take better care of our cognitive health and even to change, heal, or develop aspects of our cognition.

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